Estrogenic Activity and Identification of Potential Contributors in a River Receiving Discharge from Concentrated Livestock Effluents

in International Symposium (poster summary), 國際研討會(摘要海報發表)
標題Estrogenic Activity and Identification of Potential Contributors in a River Receiving Discharge from Concentrated Livestock Effluents
AuthorsChi-Ying Hsieh, 謝季吟
出版日期Oct 18 2016 12:0

We assessed for the presence of 22 selected contaminants of emerging concern and their estrogenic activity contributions in the Wuluo River, southern Taiwan, which receives high amounts of livestock and untreated household wastewaters. This watershed is surrounded by concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) containing approximately 3,240,000 broiler chickens, 3,317,000 laying hens, 403,000 pigs, and 2200 cows. Samples were analyzed for selected compounds with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), T47D-KBluc reporter gene assays, and E-screen cell proliferation in vitro bioassays. Total concentrations of ?alkylphenolic compounds (bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, t-nonylphenol, octylphenol, nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate, and nonylphenol di-ethoxylate) were much higher than ?estrogens (estrone, 17 s-estradiol, estriol, 17s-ethynylestradiol, and diethylstilbestrol), ?preservatives (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, and butyl paraben), ?UV-filters (benzophenone, methyl benzylidene camphor, and benzophenone-3), ?antimicrobials (triclocarben, triclosan, and chloroxylenol), and an insect repellent (diethyltoluamide) over four sampling periods. Detection rates were found in the descending order of benzophenone > benzophenone-3 > estrone > nonylphenol di- ethoxylate > BPA > nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate, although the highest concentration was found for bisphenol A with a mean concentration of 302 ng/L. Lower detection rates were found for BP, EE2, TCS, and PCMX, while DES and EP were not detected. E1 and E2 levels in raw water samples were 50% greater than the aquatic life predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) of 6 and 2 ng/L, respectively. Additionally, the potency of estrogenic activity ranged from 11.7 to 190.1 ng/LE2T47D-Kbluc and 6.63 to 84.5 ng/LE2E-Screen for extracted samples. The median 17s-estradiol equivalent (E2EEQ) concentration calculated for raw water in T47D-Kbluc bioassay was determined to be 1.06 ng/LE2T47D-Kbluc, which is considered to be associated with adverse effects. Significantly, estrone contributed 50% of overall activity in 60% and 44% of samples in T47D-Kbluc and MCF-7 bioassays, followed by 17 s-estradiol, highlighting the importance of the total loading of steroid estrogens. This study demonstrates that the estrogenic activity of target chemicals was comparable to levels found in other countries. More intense wastewater treatment is required in feedlots in order to prevent adverse impacts on aquatic species.

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