農村觀光資源之調查分析相關研究

in Technical Report, 技術報告
標題農村觀光資源之調查分析相關研究
出版類型技術報告
AuthorsLungming Tsai, 蔡龍銘
Tech and Magazine Report Number80001
出版單位日本立教大學社會學部觀光學科
出版年度1997
出版日期1997 / 9
出版語言中文
備註

摘 要
本研究是針對農村觀光發展之契機、背景及發展之必要性作探討,並就日本與台灣之農村觀光現況作資料調查及分析,對「目前農村有什麼觀光資源?」、「如何應用這些觀光資源?」及「如何經營農村觀光?」作分析。後半段則對日本群馬縣新治村、川場村以及愛知縣足助町之觀光資源及營運情形作現地調查、分析。
一、 農村觀光發展之契機與背景
(1) 日本與台灣皆因農村社會人口外流及高齡化的問題愈來愈嚴重,而想解決此一問題,於是轉變農業的經營模式,朝向休閒農業、農村觀光的方向發展。人們的趨近自然及嚮往戶外活動之意識高漲也使農村觀光之需求增加很多。
二、台灣之農村觀光與地區之振興
台灣之農村觀光目前稱為休閒農業,強調以農業為基礎,類型如:觀光農園(觀光果園、觀光蔬菜園、觀光草莓園、觀光茶園、觀光植物園、觀光藥草園、觀光漁業養殖場…等),體驗農園(教育農園、市民農園、租借農園…等),農業相關公園(農業主題公園、森林遊憩區、農業民俗村…等)及農業觀光服務(農家民宿、鄉土風味餐飲、農〈特〉產品展售中心…等)皆是。政府在農委會成立休閒產業科,文建會推行「社區總體營造」、「城鄉新風貌」…等計劃,目前原住民委員會亦有「原住民社區生態旅遊」…等計畫,利用原住民特殊之生活文化與藝術,創造出原住民農村特有之風情,試圖使原住民地區能脫離人口外流、貧困…等困境。
三、 日本之農村觀光與地區振興
自從泡沫經濟破滅,加入世界貿易組織後,農產品自由進口,農業及農村之發展則處於不振之情況,加上高齡化社會之來臨,使農村更陷入困境。為了擺脫此種困境而發展出來的便是「農村觀光」。將農村之資源如:自然資源(地形、地表景觀、動物、植物、自然現象…等),聚落資源(歷史性之聚落、老街風情、聚落景觀…等),人文資源(歷史性建築、觀光性交通工具、老舊廢棄建築、遊覽、娛樂、運動、文化、住宿、飲食、販賣…等所使用之設施),戶外遊憩活動設施(海水浴場、自動露營場、滑雪場…等),體驗設施(觀光農園、Farm stay、傳統工藝學習體驗…等)及民俗資源(宗教性活動、信仰儀式、鄉土味覺之旅、農產加工、民俗傳說…等)。
日文中直接引用英文之Green tourism 為外來語,很多第三部門(官民合資之經營體)也投入此種產業,政府為了獎勵此種產業也增加了低利融資之制度以及一些優待之措施。
四、群馬縣新治村、川場村及愛知縣足助町之農村觀光現況
群馬縣新治村及川場村兩村皆為群山環繞之山村,森林覆蓋率為84%以上,有溫泉,冬季可進行滑雪活動,有觀光果園、觀光林地蕈菇栽培場、森林副產品木工藝展演中心…等。在新治村則與千葉市、大宮市為姊妹城市,有交流設施,川場村則與東京都世田谷區為姊妹城鎮,也有交流設施。新幹線(高速鐵路)開通後,東京到這兩村只要2小時左右,農村景觀均保持完善,也保持著許多歷史文物及古蹟,在農村早市及農產直銷所中販賣許多新鮮的蔬菜及水果。新治村中有新治村農村公社,川場村則有川場村Plaza株式會社,二者皆為第三部門(third sector)之經營體。新治村的匠之里(工匠才藝展演設施)中有20多種手工藝之展演,川場村則有中央公園及SL Hotel (用舊的蒸汽火車車廂作成之旅館)頗具特色。足助町在愛知縣,全村之森林面積更高達88%,滿林紅葉的香嵐溪及及香積寺甚為有名,有溫泉,有史蹟,有民宿,有民藝料理,還有足助屋敷工藝館(手抄紙、竹工藝、稻草工藝…等),足助城跡公園,足助資料館,ZiZi工坊,Babara House…等各項設施。其中百年草、參洲樓、ZiZi工坊,Babara House…等均為公有民營之設施,營運狀況良好。
五、 日、台農村觀光之比較
比較日、台之農村觀光時發現「以農業為基礎,利用農村之歷史、文化、遺跡、風俗…等發展農村觀光」之方式則大致相同。日本之資訊、資料流通甚快,由地方領袖做農村觀光之規劃並能領導執行。政府也積極支援配合,農村之傳統包括:史蹟文化、風俗…等均保存完善。此為日本較優秀的地方值得我們學習的。
A Study on the Tourism Resources of Rural Areas in Japan and Taiwan

Lung-ming Tsai

Summary

The aim of this study is to find out the threshold, background and importance of rural tourism in the rural villages both in Japan and in Taiwan.
The data and the information collected were refined for analyses which might elucidate what were the categories of resources available and really used in rural tourism, and in what a way how they were managed.
The field survey were conducted in the villages (or little town) of Niharu and Kawaba in Gunba prefecture, and Asuke in Aichi prefecture.
1. The threshold and background for rural tourism development
The decreasing of population, the increasing ratio of the old-aged and shortage of labor power in the rural society became problems both in Japan and in Taiwan. So the resources in villages are reconsidered if they can be used as tourism resources or not. The increasing conscious of the people who live in cities on nature and out-door life are forcing them to come to rural villages just for vacations. The demand will go higher and higher.
2. The rural tourism and regional renaissance in Taiwan
The rural tourism is called “Xiu-xian-nong-yeh” in Taiwan, which emphasized the farm-based pattern of leisure business in Taiwan. And the rural tourism can be divided into 4 categories as follow:
(1) Leisure farm: farms which grow vegetables and fruits for picking, ranches for raising animals or for horse-back riding, flower gardens for scenery, and fishery for amusement.
(2) Farms for experiencing farming: rental farms and rental farms for staying etc.
(3) Agricultural parks: agricultural theme parks, recreational forestry, rural culture parks.
(4) service for tourists: farm-stay services, country-side cruising, and artifact and souvenir selling.
The National Agricultural Council (equal to the Ministry of Agriculture in Japan) is conducting a project called “Prosperous and Beautiful Villages” and the Cultural Improvement Council also conducing a project called “Integrated Construction and Development of Communities”. The aboriginal villages are still fretted over poverty and the decreasing of population. Yet the uniqueness of the aboriginal culture and artifacts can be highlights for tourism.
3. The rural tourism and regional renaissance in Japan
In considering of the bankrupt of bubble economy, import-freeing of agricultural products, decreasing population in countryside and farmers’ getting old-aged, developing the rural tourism might be a kind of resolution.
The rural tourism resources in Japan are:
(1) Natural resources: landform, landscape, animals, plants, and natural phenomena.
(2) Settlement resources: historic settlements, residential district and the landscape of settlements.
(3) Humanistic resources: historic buildings, abandoned facilities, and facilities for sight-seeing, amusement, sports, culture demonstration, cuisine, shopping and funny riding.
(4) Out-door living: beach swimming, horse-riding, auto-camping and skiing.
(5) Experiencing facilities: experiencing -use farms, staying-use farms, and artifact-making places.
(6) Custom resources: events-holding, religion facilities, countryside cuisine, agricultural food products processing, and legendaries.
Most of the rural tourism businesses are directed by the third sectors (quasi-official organizations). The government of Japan would promptly help farmers to rural tourism. The measures were low-interest loaning, supporting projects.
4. The present situation of rural tourism in villages or little town in Japan
The villages in Gunba prefecture and the little town in Aichi prefecture are all surrounded by mountains, and have the forestry ratio of more than 84%. The rural tourism resources are for skiing, leisure farming, hot-spring bathing, mushroom culturing, wood artifact making. Niiharu village has sister partnership with Chiba city and Omiya city, Kawaba village has sister partnership with Setagaya Wade of Tokyo, and Asuke town has an artifact house for international exchanges. Since the Shinkansen (bullet train) has been built, the villages in Gunba prefecture were easily to access. It takes about 2 hours to get to the villages. The landscape, historical heritages and traditional culture are all carefully preserved for tourism’s use. The morning markets or direct-selling stores are selling local products like fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and processed agricultural products.
In Niiharu village, there are more than 21 kinds of artifacts are exhibited, in Kawaba village, there has a Central Park and Steam Locomotive (SL) train hotel. These are the highlights of the villages. The red leaves of maple trees along the banks of Korankei creak are so beautiful that gathered lots of sight-seeing visitors.
5. The comparison of rural tourism between in Taiwan and in Japan
The rural tourism in both countries are the same as agriculture-based ones, and the rural history, relics and customs are all used as rural tourism attractions.
The prevailing of tourism information and data are more rapid in Japan than in Taiwan. The leaders in the communities of Japan are capable to plan and execute the projects of rural tourism. The government of Japan is enthusiastically to play the role of supporting rural tourism development. The traditional heritages, culture and customs are all preserved well in Japan. All these achieving are worthwhile for Taiwan to learn.

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